Thursday, 16 October 2014

How graphs revolutionize Identity and Access Management

I have been a big believer in Identity and Access Management technologies for the longest time. I spent many years of my professional life working for companies like Novell, Imprivata and Courion - trying to make organisations improve their policies and processes when it comes to authentication, roles and rights. The fundamental reason why spent so much time in that industry is that I truly am convinced of the fact that security threats usually (I say this full knowing that there are of course spectacular exceptions) are not external to organisations - it's usually the disgruntled employee that missed a promotion, or the inadvertent administrator making mistakes with catastrophic security effects. That's how security threats happen most of the time - not because of some external hacker. That's mostly the stuff that movies are made of - not reality.

But: I left that industry two and a half years ago, and started working for NeoTech, because I was sick and tired of the whole thing. Access Management (like Imprivata's toolset) is pretty ok - but "Identity Management" - djeez it's really a big f'ing mess. Maybe I am exaggerating a bit, but I remember thinking what a perverted, dishonest, and utterly money-squandering industry it was. Perverted and dishonest because most of the "products" out there require an army of consultants to make simple things work. And money-squandering because, while the low-end tools maybe affordable, the high-end tools that you *really* want are just completely and ridiculously expensive. It's perverse.

A meeting of minds

And then, about a year ago, I think, I came across this wonderful talk by Ian Glazer (then at Gartner, now at Salesforce). Here is his talk, or watch it below:

Ian talks about the 3 major problems that the identity management industry faces. Let me paraphrase these:
  • Identity Management is - still - preoccupied with a very static view of the world. It's crazy. People are still trying to automate simple things like create/update/deleting of user credentials, things that add zero to no real business value. IT systems, including Identity Management systems should be more dynamic - should contribute to some kind of competitive business value, shouldn't it? IT for IT's sake - who still does that???
  • Identity management, as a consequence of the point above probably, has very poor business application alignment. Organisations today are really not as much interested in automating INTERNAL processes, only. They know that part - been there done that. Now, the time has come to spend time on the EXTERNAL facing processes. The processes that link our value creation to other, external parts of the chain. Linking with suppliers, partners, customers, etc. That's where the real business value of these systems lies - not internally. And yet, Identity Management struggles to go there. The consequence of this, I believe, is a constant struggle to justify the investment: how do you explain to business people that really they should bring on board an army of consultants for a year to help solve a problem that is not aligned with the business priorities? You don't.
  • Finally: Identity Management is not leveraging real world relationships between people, assets, roles, organisations and security policies. Effectively, people - still, today - manage access as part of a hierarchical view of the world. This of course, we know because Emil keeps explaining to everyone, is false. The world is a graph. You should embrace and leverage it.
Ian's conclusion - if I may interprete it - was that really, the Identity Management industry needs to start over. It needs to be killed, in order to be reborn. And I think, that when it gets reborn, as part of that revolutionary overhaul, graph databases like Neo4j will be a big part of the new incarnation. Here's why.

How can graphs help?

I have been trying to summarize, to the best of my abilities and from a very high level, how Graph Databases will help reinvent Identity Management - when that happens. I believe that there are, effectively, two points that will be of massive help.
  1. Hi-Fi representation of relationships in an Identity Graph: many people have referred to this in other places, but effectively this is all about reducing the "impedance mismatch" of traditional hierarchical access control and identity management systems. Just like many business applications based on Relational Database Management Systems suffer from this problem (and try to patch it up with object-relational mapping band-aids), identity and access management tools try to do this with directories and all kinds of fancy overlaying tools. I believe that to things would no longer be of any use to us, if we were to express the relationships in our Identity Graph appropriately: 
    • We could eliminate the need for separate RBAC systems: Role Based Access Control (RBAC) systems are some of the most complex, tedious to use, difficult to understand, expensive to implement etc etc identity and access management systems out there. They are - no other word for it, in my opinion - absolutely terrible. The concept is great and graph based, but the implementations that I know of are just saddening. If we were to be able to express these Roles, these "cross-cutting concerns" that attribute rights to assets across different parts of the traditional hierarchy, in a graph traversal rather than a complex query and integration over relational and other systems, the world would be so much simpler.
    • We could probably eliminate the need for application specific directories. I know this is a bold statement, and one that was made before when LDAP was first introduced, but I really think this could be true. The reason why Identity Management often times continues to be so difficult is because of the integration problems that are associated with it. These integrations - today - are necessary because of the application specific information that currently is stored in each of the applications. That application specific information currently has to be stored in the application - and not in the central directory - because it would be too difficult to model, insert and query in the traditional hierarchy of those directories. So what if the directories would become graphs instead of hierarchies? Maybe then that need would go away? I know - that will take time. But it is, I think, a valid option and vision for the future?
  2. Real-time querying becomes easy and fast
    • Needless to say, directory servers are good for some things. I remember working with Novell (now NetIQ) eDirectory and it was blazingly fast for some of those typical access control queries. So is Active Directory and OpenLDAP, I assume. But as we discussed above, the new kinds of queries we want are typically multi-dimensional, across different hierarchies, cross-cutting graph traversals - that's the way we want to answer authentication and access questions in the future. Directory servers are not geared to do that. Graph databases are. That's why I think that databases like Neo4j will be playing a big part in this.
I hope that's clear. Maybe it's a little vague now - but hey, that's how revolutions start :)

Useful pointers and next steps

All of the above is why you can find a lot of different examples and materials out there to help you get started with this. There's a couple of things that I would love to point you to.
  • there's a great public case study out there about how Telenor uses Neo4j to do this kind of stuff. Take a look at it over here
  • Wes Freeman recently created a really nice airpair course that is centered around this use case. Very nice and simple.
  • Max De Marzi has written a couple of very hands-on blog posts around permission resolution with Neo4j. Look at part 1, part 2 and part 3 for some code.
  • the awesome Graph Databases Book has a chapter about this as well.
  • I have just done a webinar (recording link to follow) about this as well. Here are the slides:

    The dataset I used to do this can be generated with this gist, and the queries are available over here as well. I have also recorded the demo that I do in the webinar separately - see below:

That's about it for now. I hope this was a useful post for you, and look forward to hearing from you.




  1. Hi Rik,
    first of all this blog article, even it is an older one, made my day.
    Why? I tell you what. We have got a similar professional history. I have worked a long time as technical consultant for Novell technologies. And started to do Identity Management in 2001.
    And now I'm sitting here, responsible for an enterprise Identity Solution, being frustrated and don't know how to go forward.
    The good thing is I now know what has to be done, but there still remain some questions.
    For example what's about my provisioning engine I've used to populate (for example)the enterprise Active Directory. Shall I stick with it?
    Would you use the Neo4j database to run authentication against it (via OpenID connect)?
    I'm really interested to chat about these questions. Maybe you will drop me a line.

    1. Hey Stefan

      thanks for reaching out. Would love to discuss - I still love the IAM space and do indeed think graphs would be a great fit to solve some of the long-standing issues with it. Maybe we could connect offline?

      Let me know.